AU and EU The draft of the JAES Action Plan 2011-2013 for the Partnership on Peace and Security as communicated in the report of the 11th meeting of the Joint AUC-EC Task Force (JTF) reads “Progress has been achieved throughout the implementation of the first Action Plan in the three main areas of focus:
Political dialogue has grown and continues to grow, in order to reach common positions and implement common approaches on challenges and security in Africa, Europe and globally, at two levels:
The structural and systematic linkages between decision making organs, such as the EU PSC and the AU PSC, the EUMC and the AU MSC, Crisis management teams on both sides, have been strengthened. African and EU heads of delegations in Addis Ababa, Brussels and New York are in regular consultation. Nevertheless, these exchanges of mutual understanding need to be extended into a more technical and operational cooperation.
The substance of the dialogue has been globally organised around conflict situation and crises. However, thematic issues such as terrorism, and its various sources of financing, disarmament, post conflict reconstruction and development, already listed under this chapter in the first action plan, should become more prominent areas of dialogue and cooperation. New thematic issues such as cross border cooperation and maritime safety and security are added to make this dialogue more comprehensive and sustainable. The EU and the AU will review progress annually in the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and UNSCR 1894.
Progress has been made in the operationalization of the APSA. However much remains to be done in order to sustain and consolidate this progress and to achieve a functional Architecture including smooth and effective interaction between all components of the APSA. EU funding for the next three years Action Plan will be jointly articulated on the basis of an AU-RECs-EU operational Roadmap.
Finally, good progress was made to ensure predictable funding for Peace Support Operations undertaken by the AU or under its authority.Within the framework of the UN Security Council responsibility for maintaining international peace and security, and in light of the role of Regional arrangements in accordance with Chapter VIII of the UN Charter, a dedicated dialogue has been pursued through the Prodi Panel Report on support to Africa-led peace keeping operations and subsequent elaboration of the UN Secretary- General’s Reports on its implementation.
Within the framework of this Partnership, through the 1st and 2nd African Peace Facility, predictable support to Africa-led peace support operations has been largely provided for, in parallel with efforts to support AU and RECs Capacity Building programmes. However, the initial objective “to financially enable the AU and regional mechanisms to plan and conduct Peace Support Operations” has not been fully achieved. Further exchanges are required on AU efforts to mobilise additional resources from within the continent, including through the AU Peace Fund. There furthermore remains an acute need for more concerted action between the AU, the EU and the UN to move forward the process of implementation of the recommendations contained in the Prodi Panel’s and subsequent UNSG Reports.
I. Overall Objectives
1. Political Dialogue:
1) To jointly contribute to the global security related governance in Africa, Europe and world-wide, and make the dialogue more effective.
2) Address crises and challenges to peace, security and stability in Africa, Europe and elsewhere and capitalize on commonalities of positions.
• Reinforced structural interaction on conflict situations and crises between the EU, the AU and the RECs.
• Building upon the APSA pillars and the African security agenda, policies such as, Small Arms and Light Weapons, Antipersonnel Landmines, Explosive Remnants of War, Counter-Terrorism, Mediation, Protection of Civilians (UNSCR 1894), Women Peace and Security, and issues related to Women and Children in Armed Conflicts will be considered under a more comprehensive approach to contribute to eliminate root causes of conflict, conflict prevention, crises management and resolution, long-term post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building.
• The cooperation aspects of the security-development nexus are systematically assessed.
• Enlarged political dialogue to include RECs/RMs, in the light of the provisions of the EU and AU protocols and MoUs.
• Strengthened dialogue and coordination of positions within the UN framework by respective groups, including jointly sponsored UN Resolutions addressing global risks such as terrorism, Chemical-Biological-Radiological and Nuclear threats and the illicit spread and accumulation of firearms.
• As part of African and European regional organisations’ contributions to effective multilateralism, the AU- and EU will work with the UN to address global threats to peace and security as well as the financial and operational capacity of the AU and regional mechanisms to plan and conduct peace support operations.
• Comprehensive and co-ordinated responses to regional security threats, involving political, operational and financial stakeholders and partners.
• Enhance conflict management cooperation and EU support to Peace and Security initiatives undertaken under the auspices of the AU.
2. Operationalization of APSA
Effective functioning of the African Peace and Security Architecture to address peace and security challenges in Africa.
• Building upon progress already achieved by APSA structures at continental and regional level, and new evolutions, well reflected by the AU-RECs APSA assessment and by the outcome of Amani Africa, adoption of a comprehensive AU-RECs Roadmap for the operationalization of the APSA.
• Establishment of a trilateral EU-AU-RECs APSA operational programme based on the comprehensive AU-RECs APSA Roadmap. Its definition and implementation will guide the actions of this 2nd Action Plan, under this priority area.
• Implementation of the EU-AU-RECs programme, leading to a coherent support by the EU institutions and EU MS to different components and policies.
• This trilateral operational programme will be developed taking into account other capacity building programmes, including support provided by the UN and other partners.
• A coordinated and concerted partner support for AU and RECs/RMs including a consolidated and institutional liaison mechanism. (e.g. replicate at RECs/RMs level the Addis Ababa based AU Partner Group).
3. Predictable funding for Peace Support Operations undertaken by the AU or under its authority
Make available adequate resources (financial, material, human resources, etc) to plan, equip, deploy, and support, African led peace support operations.
• In view of 2011 UNSG Report on predictable, flexible and sustainable funding of Africa-led Peace Support Operations, based on the EU involvement, on the experience with the APF, and lessons learned from a number of peace support operations so far, elaboration of practical ways ahead on the implementation of the Prodi Panel and UNSG Reports suggestions.
• In this context and in view of the elaboration and adoption of a programme under the APF 3, The AU will provide regular updates on efforts to mobilise increased resources from within the continent, including the AU Peace Fund.
II. Specific initiatives and activities of Action Plan 2011-2013 by priority area
1. Political Dialogue
Initiative 1) Completion and implementation of the political dialogue framework by establishing systematic and structural linkages between EU COPS-AU PSC, EU and AU Chiefs of Staff, and between the new EU (EEAS) structures, the AUC and RECs Peace and Security Departments. The objective is to increase the involvement at this political level in reviewing actions already undertaken, and on providing increased political guidance for the future.
Initiative 2) Consultations between the Africa Group and the EU will be established in New York on the basis of major global challenges discussed in UNSC and UNGA (e.g. conflicts, terrorism, CBRN proliferation and conventional disarmament). Programmes and agenda for such consultations will be established on a yearly basis and be reviewed every six months in order to allow adequate preparation of the meetings at Headquarters levels.
Initiative 3) In addressing crises and challenges to P&S in Africa, Europe and elsewhere, specific Africa-EU ad hoc thematic teams will be established in order to ensure co-ordination and co-operation. To this effect, the added value of these teams might be particularly beneficial for tackling post-conflict stabilisation, reconstruction and development, and strengthening the role of women in all stages, to consolidate the progress made in resolving conflicts in Africa and take advantage of the experience and capabilities of Europe. These teams will involve the International Community stakeholders as appropriate, and will optimize the follow-up to the AU Policy on Post Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD). In this regard, the African Union will complete a study on the possible establishment of a Post Conflict Reconstruction and Development Centre.
Initiative 4) Thematic cluster sessions with experts from AU/RECs/RMs/MS/EU will be created on operational objectives in areas such as climate change and security, AU border programme, including exchange of experience, capacity building, cross-border co-operation, development of legal instruments, and disarmament issues (including Explosive Remnants of War), or focusing on geographical areas (e.g. Sahel, Gulf of Guinea…). These initiatives could lead to the organization of Europe-Africa conferences on these themes.
Initiative 5) Informal consultations between the AU, EU and UN, to follow-up the recommendations of the AU/UN Report chaired by Mr. Romano Prodi, and the UN Secretary General Report of September 2009, should enable the three organisations to advance their respective agendas. Practical suggestions from experts should help to make progress in providing sustainable, flexible and predictable support for peacekeeping operations launched within the framework of Chapter VIII of the UN Charter and undertaken by the AU or under its authority with the consent of the UN Security Council.
Initiative 6) Building on the AU Border Programme, as well as on the rich experience of the EU in this field, we will programme activities to be undertaken together, including exchange of experience, capacity building, cross-border co-operation and development of legal instruments. This initiative could also be extended, through the support of EU Member States, to exchanges of experience on delimitation and demarcation of borders.
Initiative 7) In pursuit of the reinforcement of the Preventive, Peace Building and Post Conflict policies and measures of the APSA at continental and regional levels, plans of action will be drawn up and implemented so as to deal with thematic issues such as: SSR, DDR, AU Border programmes, Early Warning systems, Women Peace and Security, Mediation- Negotiation capacity, and Counter-terrorism.
Initiative 8 ) The ongoing co-operation to combat the illicit trafficking of SALW will be reinforced through a comprehensive and concrete Plan of Action in support of the implementation of the AU SALW Strategy, in co-ordination with the IC. Similarly, an Action Plan will be drawn up to support the implementation of the Pelindaba Treaty and of the three additional protocols, notably the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear energy.
2. Adoption and implementation of a comprehensive AU-RECs strategic Roadmap for the operationalization of the APSA in the long term, reflecting regional, continental, and global security priorities of the AUC, RECs and AU MS and capable of ensuring coherence of purpose across the different policies addressed.
Initiative 1) As a follow-up to the first action plan and of different evaluations regarding African training needs and capacities for ASF, implement operational and concrete AU/RECs/EU agreed measures to improve the required capacities and capabilities of African training centres.
Initiative 2) Adoption of an APSA AU-RECs Strategic Roadmap consisting of an articulated long-term perspective of the APSA goals and processes through which to achieve them. This AU roadmap, which the EU will support will ensure coherent, co-ordinated and concerted decisions and priorities between the regional and continental levels of the APSA and EU’s continental, regional and country instruments. A strengthened framework for a follow-up assessment of the interaction between the different components of the APSA and respective responsibilities will be made available and will give clear indications for further operational support.
Initiative 3) Identify and set priorities and strict timelines for the short-term implementation phase (three-years) of the AU-RECs Roadmap. This short term phase, which covers the period of the second action plan, will build on the conclusions of the APSA needs assessment, lessons learned from the AMANI Africa training cycle, including regional training exercises, and the draft of the AU African Standby Force 3rd roadmap, and will address the APSA policies (captured in the AU-RECs MoU on APSA). The prioritised activities and the sequencing of the steps required to achieve the operational objectives will be assessed on a regular basis to ensure a functional APSA consisting of components that interact in a coordinated way. This plan will become the trilateral AU-RECs-EU APSA Roadmap detailing EU support for envisaged activities.
Initiative 4) Further develop and endorse concepts, doctrines and procedures related to ASF in general (including rapid deployment capabilities, logistics, and maritime components), to APSA (functional connections between Early Warning and Planning Elements at regional and continental level and decision making bodies, training, mediation) and to other security issues (SSR, DDR, SALW, counter-terrorism).
Initiative 5) Develop human rights and gender training programmes for peace keeping missions in Africa, as requested by the EU-AU human rights dialogue agenda.
Initiative 6) Organise a second training cycle of the APSA structures, according to the AU- set main objectives for the short term (three years) and taking into account lessons learned from the first AMANI AFRICA cycle.
3. Predictable funding for Peace Support Operations undertaken by the AU or under its authority.
Initiative 1) The issue of predictable funding for Africa-led PSOs will also be integrated under the relevant initiatives in the first and second priority areas of this Action Plan. In this context and in view of the elaboration and adoption of a programme under the APF 3, a dedicated political and technical forum on the AU Peace Fund will need to connect African political and financial decisions in this area with EU engagements.
Initiative 2) Launch a dedicated, albeit informal, UN-AU-EU dialogue within the UN framework to propose practical steps forward to the Prodi Panel and UNSG Reports.
Initiative 3) Based on to the trilateral AU-RECs-EU operational Plan for the APSA operationalisation and on the African Peace and Security Agenda and on the progress under Initiative 1, the EU, AU and RECs will work together in defining the 3rd APF programme.”
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